Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Integrate Technology Into Physical Education Instruction
Few people would argue today that information technologies are having
and will continue to have major impacts on education.
In higher education, there is a continual challenge to develop and
integrate technology into the classroom.
University students are not only expected, but also required to use
technology in classes. Technology
has the potential to be a driving force for all that will be good about
education in the future. With
appropriate instruction, pre-service teachers can be prepared to integrate
technology into instruction in the physical education classroom. On the other hand, there are individuals that may see
information technology as something less than positive, that has the
potential to destroy education and be the driving force toward all the
negative aspects of consumerism.
Like most complicated technological developments and their associated
social changes, the truth is somewhere between these two extreme positions.
However, those who fear the consequences of information technology
developments may do so because of the possibilities these technologies
present for a fundamental shift in how we think about schooling, teaching,
and learning. Unfortunately,
people who advocate this shift and support technology have failed to show
how technology can actually promote the core values of American education
If technology is indeed a facilitator of quality education in all
areas and in particular the field of physical education, it becomes
necessary to provide examples of how it will be used.
Examples need to be offered that challenge the pre-service teacher in
their quest to provide quality education.
The examples need to prepare them to integrate this technology into
physical education instruction to optimize learning for all students in
One model that addresses the issues and provides answers to the
questions is being developed at the University of Northern Iowa through a
U.S. Department of Education grant, Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use
Technology (PT3). Called
Technology as Facilitator of Quality Education (TFQE), the model is
established under the InTime project (Integrating New Technologies into the
Methods of Education, www.intime.uni.edu).
This three-year project addresses deficiencies in teacher education
programs in preparing pre-service teachers to use technology effectively in
the PreK-12 classroom. The purpose of InTime is to provide the necessary resources
for methods faculty to revise their courses, model technology integration,
and require pre-service teachers to integrate technology and components of
quality education in their lessons and units.
A consortium of five participating Renaissance Group universities has
been working together in this project to create new learning resources and
implement new standards for technology integration in pre-service teacher
This project is intended to produce change in teacher education
programs in three ways. First,
it has generated new learning resources on the web to support new teaching
and learning processes in education methods courses.
New learning resources include video scenarios of PreK-12 teachers
effectively integrating technology, along with components of quality
education, in a variety of grade levels and content areas.
The videos are accessible online nation-wide.
Second, methods faculty in physical education and other content areas
are revising their courses to model technology integration using the video
scenarios and online discussion forum, requiring students to apply
technology, and implementing the Pre-service Teacher Technology Competencies
as exit criteria for their courses. Finally,
methods faculty will share strategies for integrating technology and course
revisions with other faculty involved in the grant through a variety of
The Technology as Facilitator of Quality Education (TFQE) model
includes seven major dimensions organized in a circular fashion to show
Students at the center of their own learning;
Principles of good learning;
Aspects of information processing;
Standards from content disciplines; and
Tenets of effective citizenship in a democratic society.
Teacher knowledge and behavior, and
(see Figure 1)
The seven dimensions of the TFQE model provide a way
for educators to view the integration of technology related tools into a
robust educational environment. The
model identifies key points at which technology should be implemented and
evaluated to determine its impact. It
simultaneously allows for the integration of new research findings into the
appropriate segments of the model while maintaining the structure to
evaluate the impact of technology tools on these new findings as part of an
ongoing evaluation process. In
so doing, it allows a variety of users (pre-service teachers, teachers,
administrators, and others) to see the complex process that is education and
how technology is affecting that process.
Review of the Literature
A review of the literature used to develop the essential elements of
quality education for the TFQE model answers questions regarding a support
for the shift in our educational activities toward technology and how the
model can prepare pre-service teachers to integrate technology effectively
into health and physical education instruction.
This review is broken into the following sections:
Students at the center of their own learning, principles of learning,
aspects of information processing, standards from content disciplines,
tenets of effective citizenship in a democratic society, teacher knowledge
and behavior, and technology components.
Students at the Center of Their Own Learning
The TFQE model revolves around the central element of
“student-centered learning (SCL), and in this manner places the student
(learner) in the center of the learning process.
In student-centered learning, students are active participants in
their learning rather than passive recipients; students learn at their own
pace and use their own strategies…” (Learner-Centered Classrooms,
Problem Based Learning and the Construction of Understanding and Meaning,
Student-centered learning is distinguished from teacher-centered
learning or instruction that is characterized by the transmission of
information from a knowledge expert (teacher) to a relatively passive
recipient (student/learner) or consumer (McCombs & Whisler, 1997).
By putting students at the center of their own learning, we blend
these various components into a unique learning system, a system that allows
us to view the complicated process that is learning and its individual
According to Stiggins (1997), “The most valuable lesson we have
learned in recent years form those studying cognitive processes is that rote
memorization does not ensure understanding, and thus is not a powerful way
to promote learning” (p.257). Student
centered learning is not a new concept for health and physical education
teachers. Those who teach health and physical education have known for years
that traditional methods have not been an effective means for promoting
The construction of knowledge means that the learner links new
information with existing and future-oriented knowledge in unique and
meaningful ways (McCombs, 1997, p.5). Although
knowledge acquisition processes are needed to form the base, that knowledge
is useful to the degree it can be applied or used to create new knowledge (Marzano
et al., 1988, p.33). Learning
and self-esteem are heightened when individuals are in respectful and caring
relationships with others who see their potential, genuinely appreciate
their unique talents, and accept them as individuals (McCombs & Whisler,
For student-centered learning to occur, high quality classroom
management is needed. Woolfolk
(2001) cited three reasons for the importance of such a management system:
to allocate more time for learning, to give more access to learning,
and to help students develop their self-management.
Principles of Learning
This second essential element in the Technology as a Facilitator of
Quality Education model includes aspects of what we now know about learning.
Current research in cognitive science has suggested that big
differences exist between knowledge based on recall and deeper forms of
understanding. Ewell (1997)
described seven insights about learning:
Active involvement – The learner is not a
“receptacle” of knowledge, but rather creates his or her learning
actively and uniquely.
Patterns & Connections – Learning is about each
individual learner making meaning by establishing and reworking patterns,
relationships, and connections.
Informal Learning – Every student learns all the time
both in “formal” education and in informal learning situations out of
direct interactions with complex environments and a range of “cues” from
peers and mentors.
Direct Experience – Direct experience decisively
shapes individual understanding that certainly lends credence to
educators’ efforts to create active student engagement in any teaching
Compelling Situation – Maximum learning tends to
occur when people are confronted with specific, identifiable problems that
they want to solve and that are within their power to solve.
Reflection – Building lasting cognitive connections
requires sizeable periods of reflective activity, meaning that effective
learning situations need to include thinking time.
Enjoyable Setting – Effective learning, which is
social and interactive, occurs best in a cultural context that provides
enjoyable interactions and substantial personal support.
Aspects of Information Processing
Developing the dispositions and skills necessary for informed
information processing has become a necessary component of education in an
information age. Switzer,
Callahan, and Quinn(1999) suggested using The Pathways to Knowledge model
(Pappas & Tepe, 1997), which allows users to see how contemporary
technology influences the individual parts of their model and to view the
parts as a coherent element of the TFQE model.
The component parts of the process include:
Appreciation – Of literature, arts, nature, and
information through varied multiple formats (stories, film, paintings,
natural settings, music, books, periodicals, the Web, video, etc.)
Presearch – Making connections between a topic,
question, or information need and the searcher’s prior knowledge.
Search – Identifying appropriate information
providers, resources and tools; planning and implementing a search strategy.
Interpretation – Assessing the usefulness and quality
of their information gathered and reflecting to develop personal meaning.
Communication – Organizing, applying, and presenting
new knowledge relevant to the searcher’s research.
Choosing a format that reflects the new knowledge; plan and create
Evaluation – Evaluating by both self and peers at
each stage of this nonlinear information process model (Pappas & Tepe,
Standards From Content Disciplines
In recent years, content standards have been
developed for almost all of the discipline areas, including health and
physical education, either by teams from the disciplines themselves or by
agencies in various states (Switzer, Callahan, & Quinn, 1999).
The content standards serve as a third dimension of effective
learning and integration of technology using the TFQE model.
The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)
appointed a committee to answer the question “What should students know
and be able to do?” The
information produced by the committee provided a definition of the
physically educated person. The
definition and complete information on the National Standards for Physical
Education may be found in the NASPE’s (1995) publication, Moving into
the Future: National Physical
Education Standards: A Guide
to Content and Assessment.
The National Health
Education Standards were developed by The American Association for Health
Education (AAHE). National
Health Education Standards were developed to improve student learning
across the nation by providing a foundation for curriculum development,
instruction and assessment of student performance.
The standards are published in a book, AAHE (1995), National Health
Tenets of Effective Citizenship in a Democratic Society
Research on the tenets of democracy in a robust
learning environment show great similarity between what we know about good
classrooms and what we know about democracy.
At the heart of our education system is the preparation of students
to lead productive lives consistent with the basic tenets of a democratic
society. Unfortunately, most
schools and classrooms are not organized to consciously promote democratic
disposition and skills. The
basic tenets of democratic schools and classrooms include the following,
which serve as the fourth component of the TFQE model:
Tolerance – the capacity for or the practice of
recognizing and respecting the beliefs or practices of others (The
American Heritage Dictionary, 1982).
Critical Thinking and Decision Making – People who
think critically proceed on the basis of careful evaluation of the
premises and evidence and come to conclusions as objectively as possible
by considering all pertinent factors and using valid logical procedures
(Good, 1973). To think
critically, citizens must gather necessary information using inquiry
skills (observe, describe, compare, identify, etc.) and avoiding common
problems in logic (for instance, getting personal, making false
comparisons, saying things everyone will like, arguing in circles etc.)
(Callahan, 1998). Then
citizens must decide on the reliability of the information that they use
as evidence to support their positions on complex social problems.
Decision-making in democracies is a process of reaching agreement
in group situations through dialogue, discussion, debate, and analysis
Thinking Together and Making Meaning – “Citizens
must decide how to deal with complex social problems:
how to define the problem, what values should be pursued, what
public policies should be supported, what candidates should be elected to
office, what actions should be taken with respect to social concerns”
(Engle & Ochoa, 1988, p. 61). Steiner (as cited in Lipset, 1995)
argued that in a democratic society as many people as possible should be
involved in making decisions to help sharpen the issues and check the
soundness of the arguments. The
discipline of team learning starts with dialogue and the capacity of team
members to suspend assumptions and enter into genuine “thinking
together” (Senge, 1990).
Power Sharing and Empowerment – Empowerment is
“the opportunity and means to effectively participate and share
authority” (Bastian, Fruchter, Gittell, Greer, & Haskins, as cited
in Simon, 1987, p. 374). “Empowerment
can lead to rapid intellectual growth” (Hill, 2000, p. 61) “and the
ability to deal with complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity.”
Individual Responsibility and Civil Involvement with
Others – These traits will grow with the opportunities in a democracy to
share the mutual tasks for the orderliness and welfare of the group and
for personal independence (Good, 1973).
Hollingshead (1941) noted that democracy is not solely a political
organization, but rather a social relationship, a conscious striving on
the part of each member for the advancement of the common welfare; a
shared responsibility with individual accountability (pp.17-18).
Teacher Knowledge and Behavior
This essential element of the TFQE model describes
the following components of an effective teacher in any subject area:
knowledge of student characteristics, teachers’ in-depth content
knowledge, classroom management, and pedagogy.
Student Characteristics – Research has revealed the
importance of adjusting learning activities to the learner.
The closer the match between students’ learning styles and their
teachers’ teaching styles, the higher the grade point average (Dunn, R,
Griggs, Olson, Gorman, & Beasley, 1995).
A Learning Style Model (R. Dunn & Griggs, 1995) revealed that
students are affected by five main factors:
their immediate environment, their own emotionality, their
sociological preferences, their physiological characteristics, and their
processing inclination. Accommodating
instruction to these styles is much easier with the rich resources
available through various technologies.
Practitioners throughout the United States have reported
statistically higher test scores or grade point averages for students who
changed from traditional teaching to learning-style teaching at all levels
– elementary, secondary, and college (Brunner & Majewski, as cited
in Shaughnessy, 1998; Alberg, Cook, Fiore, Friend, & Sano, 1992).
Teachers In-Depth Content Knowledge – To teach all students
according to today’s standards, teachers need to understand subject
matter deeply and flexibly so they can help students create useful
cognitive maps, relate one idea to another, and address misconceptions.
Teachers need to see how ideas connect across fields and to
everyday life and then assist their students in seeing these connections.
This kind of understanding provides a foundation for pedagogical content
knowledge that enables teachers to make ideas accessible to others (Shulman,
1987, 1986). “If beginning
teachers are to be successful, they must wrestle simultaneously with
issues of pedagogical content (or knowledge) as well as general pedagogy
(or generic teaching principles)” (Grossman, as cited in Ornstein,
Thomas, & Lasley, 2000, p. 508).
Classroom Management – School and classroom management aims
to encourage and establish student self-control by promoting positive
student achievement and behavior. Thus
academic achievement, teacher efficacy, and teacher and student behavior
are directly linked with the concept of school and classroom management (Froyen
& Iverson, 1999). Classroom
management focuses on content management, conduct management and covenant
Pedagogy – The professional teaching standards represent the
teaching profession’s consensus on the critical aspects of the art and
science of teaching (pedagogy) that characterize accomplished teachers in
various fields, including health and physical education. Effective teachers display skills at creating curriculum
designed to build on students’ present knowledge and understanding and
move them to more sophisticated and in-depth abilities, knowledge,
concepts, and performances. Teachers
in health and physical education employ a range of instructional
strategies and resources to match the variety of student skills.
They observe and assess students in the context of ongoing
classroom life. They
understand and respect diversity in students’ cultures, values,
languages, and family backgrounds (National Board of Professional Teaching
Technology is the set of the powerful tools that the teacher and
learner can use to facilitate his/her own learning process.
Technology resources can be used to provide opportunities for
learning and create the “conditions that optimize learning” (Switzer,
Callahan, & Quinn, 1999). To
ensure that technology is used to facilitate quality education, the key
elements of the TFQE model need to be matched with a set of standards for
the appropriate uses of technology. The
INTIME project is using the Pre-service Teacher Technology Competencies,
performance-based competencies modeled on several national standards
documents, developed by the UNI Teacher Education faculty.
These technology competencies include:
Basic Technology Equipment Operations and Concepts, Technology
Resources and Tools for Information Literacy, and Technology Resources and
Tools for the Individual Content Areas.
Design and Instrumentation
The content standards served as one of the dimensions
of effective learning and integration of technology using the TFQE model. The content standards were used as the primary element of the
Technology as Facilitator of Quality Education (TFQE) model for the health
and physical education classes. Students
were to learn the standards for the discipline, and be able to demonstrate
them in their lesson and unit plan development.
The INTIME online video vignettes chosen were used as a
demonstration for the students to provide an example and explanation of
how content standards are used in the development of technology in
classroom projects, lessons, and units.
The specific video vignettes chosen were:
Sportsfolio for grades 7-8 and Becoming Aware: Cancer for grade 12.
Sportsfolio allows the
student to choose an activity they would participate in for lifelong
physical fitness and wellness. They
use a variety of technology resources such as a computer, scanner, digital
camera, heart-rate monitors, Digi-Walkers, and software called
Aware: Cancer allows students to be the center of their own learning by
involving them in every step of the process. As they work in groups to
gather information they gain insight into the types and causes of cancer
as well as many other components of the disease. The information gathered
by each group is shared in a presentation to the rest of the class.
Both video vignettes were very effective in providing appropriate
information for the pre-service teachers to incorporate the use of
technology into their future lesson plans based on content standards.
To document how the
Technology as a Facilitator of Quality Education model prepares
pre-service teachers to integrate technology into health and physical
education instruction, the UNI Pre-service Teacher Technology Competencies
were used (www.INTIME.uni.edu/model/technology/comps1.html).
The Preservice Teacher Technology Competencies listed
in Table 1 identify the areas of proficiency required by pre-service
teachers to effectively use technology resources to provide learning
opportunities and create the conditions that optimize learning.
Using the various competency levels, teachers find out their
strengths and weaknesses so they may then address the weakness areas.
Each competency is written in a rubric format for student
assessment with five defined levels of proficiency:
1) Pre-Novice (no experience), 2) Novice/Awareness (minimal
experience), 3) Apprentice/Professional Skill (experience doing something
on a personal level), 4) Practitioner/Curricular Integration (experience
using these resources to create learning opportunities), and 5) Expert
(reflection upon the use of these resources to create learning
Preservice Teacher Technology Competencies
Equipment Operations and Concepts
Operate a multimedia computer system, including installing
software, accessing programs or files
in other drives (such
as CD-ROM in drive d:/), saving and deleting files, organizing folders
within the context of Macintosh, Windows, and networked systems.
Use terminology related to computers and technology
appropriately in written and oral
Describe and implement basic trouble-shooting techniques for
multimedia computer systems with
Operate basic and discipline-specific equipment (e.g. LCD
display projectors; scan converters;
VCRs; graphing calculators in math; MIDI keyboards in music; and
and still, digital, or
video cameras in the visual arts) and use it to support instruction
specific to the content
Demonstrate awareness of uses of computers and computing
technology in business, industry, and
Demonstrate knowledge of equity, ethics, legal, and human
issues concerning use of computers
Demonstrate awareness of resources for adaptive assertive
devices for students with special needs.
Technology Resources and Tools for Information Literacy
IIa. Tools to Access
Use World Wide Web sources to access information and analyze
the authority, accuracy, currency, and relevance.
Use electronic informational and reference sources
(e.g., CD-ROMs or laserdiscs about oceans, art, Shakespeare, or
Africa; or a periodical index; or a multimedia encyclopedia) to access
information and analyze the authority, accuracy, currency, and
Use audio/visual resources (audiotapes, videos or slides) to
access information and analyze the authority, accuracy, currency, and
IIb. Tools to Use Information
Use Internet and e-mail to communicate with others.
Use video conferencing such as the Iowa Communications Network
(ICN) to communicate with others.
Use multimedia software to create multimedia reports or
Use World Wide Web authoring software or HTML code to create an
Use audio/visual technology (audiotape, video or slides) to
produce artistic or informational audio/visual projects.
IIc. Software Applications
Use word processing and print layout design applications to
compose, revise, and produce materials, documents, newsletters, or
Use databases to collect, organize, and analyze data and
produce meaningful reports to aid in problem solving.
Use spreadsheets to calculate and display information and
produce meaningful reports to aid in problem-solving.
Use graphic organizer software to display information
graphically for brainstorming or decision-making sessions.
Use instructional software to support student learning and
professional review sources to match software to the needs of learners
in the special education or regular classroom.
Technology Resources and Tools for Content Areas
Use CAD and other instructional software for instruction in
Use physical education instructional software, equipment, and
simulations for physical education instruction.
Use audio/visual technology to provide feedback for skill
development/performance enhancement in communication or physical
Use instructional software and CAD technology for theatre
instruction, design, or direction.
Use instructional software and MIDI technology for music
composition or instruction.
Use digital imaging programs as a tool for artistic expression
Use instructional software appropriate for reading, viewing,
writing, listening, speaking, and performance instruction.
Use foreign language instructional technologies and associated
documentation for foreign language instruction.
Use appropriate calculators (four function, fraction,
scientific, or graphing) and extensions to enhance mathematics
Use appropriate software (e.g., LOGO, spreadsheets, CAS,
Geometer's Sketchpad) to enhance mathematics instruction.
Use computer and video systems (e.g., computers, videodisc
players, VCR’s, DVD’s, and cameras) for science instruction and
Use computer and calculator applications to collect, display,
and analyze physical data for science instruction and inquiry.
Use instructional software for role-playing, simulations, or
research in the social sciences.
Teachers’ in-depth knowledge of technology resources will greatly
enhance their ability to provide instruction that is relevant for today and
tomorrow’s classrooms (Switzer, Callahan, & Quinn, 1999).
In keeping with the goals of the INTIME grant, each methods faculty
member from the cooperating universities involved revised their course for
pre-service teachers based on the TFQE model.
The course revised for this project was the secondary methods class
in physical education. Using
new learning resources on the INTIME web site (video scenarios demonstrating
effective integration of technology with components of quality education),
the researcher incorporated these and the pre-service teacher technology
standards into the revised physical education course.
The revised course outline may be seen in Table 2.
321 – Techniques of Teaching Physical Education
& Text or
First class meeting, Introduction to course
Introduction to Mo-STEP Portfolio
Discuss Placement for Field Experience
Chap. 1 & 2
The Role of Education and the Physical Educator
INTIME Pre-test on-line
The Role of Technology in Teaching
Understanding the learner & learning
UNI Chat Line
Assigning placements for Field Experience
Chap. 3 & 4
Planning the instructional program
UNI Chat Line
Unit and Lesson Plans Due 2/12/01
UNI Chat Line
Pre-assessment strategies & objectives
assignment due 2/19/01
Chap. 13 & 14
Oct 15 Through Dec 3
Performance Objectives Assignment (25 points)
Making a Grade Book with Excel (25 points)
Pre-service physical education teachers (i.e.
students in the techniques class) evaluated the revised methods course to
determine how the TFQE model using Preservice Teacher Technology
Competencies has helped them become better able to integrate technology to
optimize learning. Two
separate evaluations were conducted at the beginning of the semester and
at the end of the semester. One
evaluation was conducted on-line through the INTIME web site regarding the
use and knowledge of technology and a second evaluation was compiled of
questions regarding the applicability of technology to teaching in the
discipline. The procedure for
the applicability evaluation was done by having the students fill out a
simple yes/no questionnaire. The
questions used to identify what students opinions were on using technology
to optimize learning may be seen in Table 3.
Technology Class Student Evaluation on Applicability
Circle either Y or N (yes or no) to indicate your
current belief about each of the following questions. Your answer will not affect your grade in this class.
1. Do you have any
plans to use technology in the classroom setting once you
start teaching physical education?
2. Do you know how
technology can be used in a high school physical education
3. Is it necessary
to have knowledge of the various uses of technology in a
physical education setting to be an affective teacher?
4. Do you know how
your students might benefit from the use of technology in
a physical education class?
5. Would you like
to know more about the use of technology for teaching
6. Do you believe
you and your students could benefit from using technology in
7. Do you know any
affective way to use technology in physical education
classes including individuals with disabilities?
8. Would you like
to know some uses of technology for adapted physical
9. Do you know how
students with disabilities might benefit in physical
education by the use of technology?
Place any comments you may have in the following
Recommendations and Conclusions
Results from the applicability questionnaire filled
out prior to and following the techniques class indicated a skepticism
prior to the use of the TFQE Model. Not
only did the students indicate a disinterest in using technology in the
classroom, but they also did not see a benefit for the students they would
be teaching. Table 4 contains
the results from the applicability questionnaire.
Table 4. Technology
Evaluation on Applicability Pre-test Results
to use technology? 92%
how technology can be used? 83%
to have knowledge of technology?
how students benefit from technology?
to know more about technology?
self and students could benefit from technology? 92% No
a way to use technology in physical education classes including
individuals with disabilities?
to know some uses of technology for adapted physical education
classes? 75% No
how students with disabilities might benefit? 92% No
The pre-test results can then be compared to the
post-test results, which may be seen in Table 5.
At least 50% of the pre-service teachers in the classroom have
plans to use technology in their future lesson plans subsequent to using
the TFQE Model, whereas only 8% were going to at the beginning of the
semester. Additionally, 100%
of the pre-service teachers reported knowing how technology can be used,
know how their students will benefit, desire to learn more about
technology, know how to use it with student s with disabilities, like to
know more uses for technology in adapted physical education classes, and
know how students with disabilities may benefit subsequent to using the
TFQE Model (questions 2,4,5,6,7,8,and 9).
There were 75% of the pre-service teachers reporting the need for
technology subsequent to the use of the TFQE Model, as compared to only 8%
prior to the use of the Model.
Table 5. Classroom
Technology Evaluation Post-test Results
to use technology? 50%
how technology can be used? 100%
to have knowledge of technology?
how students benefit from technology?
to know more about technology?
self and students could benefit from technology? 100% Yes
a way to use technology in physical education classes including
individuals with disabilities?
to know more uses of technology for adapted physical education
classes? 100% Yes
how students with disabilities might benefit? 100% Yes
Subsequent to using the TFQE Model, students were
able to use technology and were able to become aware of a need for
technology in the classroom even though they were unable to realize the
need for technology in the classroom prior to using the TFQE Model
supported by the INTIME web site through the University of Northern Iowa.
Many students informally suggested an eagerness for the opportunity
to use some of the technology skills for future lessons and to include
them in their lesson and unit plans.
It is strongly recommended that some form of technology be used in
techniques classes, and the INTIME web site using the TFQE Model is more
than adequate to prepare pre-service teachers to include technology in
future lesson and unit plans. It
continues to be a challenge to keep up with continued changes with
technology, and the INTIME web site is diversified and able to change with
the necessity to update and change with the changing times.
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