Chap 4. Positive Interdependence and Individual Accountability
Types of Positive Interdependence
Johnson and Holubec describe three levels in establishing positive
interdependence. The teacher first has to assign the group a clear,
measurable task, then structure positive goal interdependence, and finally
blend positive goal interdependence with other types of positive
are nine types of positive interdependence:
Goal Interdependence: Students must
realize that they can achieve their learning goals if, and only if, all the
members of their group also achieve their goals.
Celebration/Reward Interdependence: A
mutual reward is given for successful group work and membersí efforts to
Resource Interdependence: Each member
of the group has only a part of the information, resources, or materials
necessary for his or her task. In this way, the members' resources have to be
combined so that the group accomplishes its goal.
Role Interdependence: Each member is
assigned complementary and interconnected roles that show the
responsibilities required by the group to fulfill a common task.
Identity Interdependence: Group
members have to find and agree upon a common identity, which can be a name, a
motto, a slogan, a flag, or a song.
Interdependence: Students are bound
together by the physical environment in which they work. Thus, the teacher has
to find an environment that unifies students.
Fantasy Interdependence: The teacher
gives students an imaginary task, for which they have to come up with solutions,
for example a life-threatening situation or dealing with
Task Interdependence: Work has to be
organized sequentially. As soon as one team accomplishes its portion, the next team can
proceed with its responsibility, and so on.
Outside Enemy Interdependence: The
teacher puts groups in competition with each other. In this way, group
members feel interdependent and do their best to win the competition (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998).
resource, role, and task interdependence result in individuals realizing
that the performance of group members depends on the whole group and not on
individuals. No student is on
his/her own. As a result of mutual causation, cooperative efforts are
characterized by positive inducibility in that group members are open to
being influenced by each other. If one member of the group has taken an action, there is no need for other members to do so (Johnson & Johnson,
D., Johnson, R. (1999). Learning together and alone:
cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon. Johnson,
D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998). Cooperation in the classroom.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Johnson, D., Johnson, R. (1999). Learning together and alone: cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998). Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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