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 Chap 9. Reflection 


 

 Changing paradigm of teaching 

In the old paradigm of teaching, the teacherís knowledge is transferred to passive learners. The absolute, necessary, and sufficient requirement for teachers in this context is complete mastery of the content. The classic classroom is the teacher lecturing and students listening. The students are silent, passive, and in competition with each other.

The new paradigm of teaching is based on the theory and research that have clear applications to instruction. In the new paradigm of teaching, knowledge is actively constructed, discovered, transformed, and extended by students. The teacherís effort is aimed at developing studentsí competencies and talents; education is a personal transaction among students and between teacher and students as they work together. (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998).

 

Comparisons of old and new paradigms of teaching

Factor

Old paradigm of teaching

New paradigm of teaching

Knowledge

Transferred from faculty to students

Jointly constructed by students and faculty

Students

Passive vessel to be filled by facultyís knowledge

Active constructor, discoverer, transformer of own knowledge

Faculty purpose

Classify and sort students

Develop studentsí competencies and talents

Relationships

Impersonal relationships among students and between faculty and students

Personal transactions among students and between faculty and students

Context

Competitive/individualistic

Cooperative learning in cla ssroom and cooperative teams among faculty

Assumption

Any expert can teach

Teaching is complex and requires considerable training

 

The old paradigm of teaching

  • transferring knowledge from teacher to student

  • filling passive empty vessels with knowledge

  • classifying students by deciding who gets which grade and sorting students into categories

  • conducting education within a context of impersonal relationships among students and between teachers and students

  • maintaining a competitive organizational structure

  • assuming that anyone with expertise in their field can teach without training to do so

The new paradigm of teaching

  • knowledge is constructed, discovered, transformed, and extended by students

  • students actively construct their own knowledge

  • teacher effort is aimed at developing studentsí competencies and talents

  • education is a personal transaction among students and between teachers and students as they work together

  • all of the above can only take place within a cooperative context

  • teaching is assumed to be a complex application of theory and research

  • that requires considerable teacher training and continuous refinement of skills and procedures (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998).

Reference

           Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998). Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.