1. The nature of the learning process: This process is active, volitional, and internally
mediated. It is a process of discovering and constructing meaning
from information and experience filtered through the
learners’ unique perceptions, thoughts, and feelings
(McCombs & Whisler, 1997).
Goals of the learning process:
“The learner seeks to create meaningful, coherent
representations of knowledge regardless of the
quantity and quality of data available” (McCombs
& Whisler, 1997, p. 5).
Learning and improving
Clear, specific, reasonable, moderately
challenging learning tasks
The construction of knowledge:
This learning principle reflects “concerns with how
individuals build up certain elements of their
cognitive or emotional apparatus” (Phillips, 1997,
Patterns and connections
Higher order thinking:
This means to find patterns by comparing, contrasting,
classifying, and generalizing information. The goal is
to form conclusions based on evidence (Eggen, 1996).
Motivational influences on learning:
These reflect the "importance of learner beliefs,
values, interests, goals, expectations for success,
and emotional states of mind in producing either
positive or negative motivations to learn (McCombs
& Whisler, 1997, p. 75).
Intrinsic motivation to learn:
This is “the natural tendency to seek out and
conquer challenges as we pursue personal interests and
exercise capabilities” (Deci & Ryan, as cited in
Woolfolk, 2001, p. 368).
Enjoyment of learning
Characteristics of motivation-enhancing learning
include curiosity, creativity, and higher order
thinking, which are stimulated by relevant, authentic
learning tasks of optimal difficulty and novelty for
each student (Schurr, 1994, p. 64).
Tasks that activate students’ curiosity
Strategies and activities that develop and
challenge students’ creativity
Developmental constraints and opportunities:
Individuals progress through stages of physical,
intellectual, emotional, and social development that
are a function of unique genetic and environmental
factors (McCombs & Whisler, 1997).
Social and cultural diversity:
Learning is facilitated by social interactions and
communication with others in flexible, diverse (in
age, culture, family background, etc.), and adaptive
instructional settings (McCombs & Whisler, 1997).
Civil involvement with others
Social acceptance, self-esteem, and learning:
Learning and self-esteem are heightened when
individuals are in respectful and caring relationships
with others who see their potential, genuinely
appreciate their unique talents, and accept them as
individuals (McCombs & Whisler, 1997).
Individual differences in learning:
Students have different capabilities and preferences
for learning modes and strategies (McCombs &
Their immediate environment
Their own emotionality
Their sociological preferences
Their physiological characteristics
Their processing inclination
These consist of personal beliefs, thoughts, and
understandings that result from prior learning and
interpretations and become the individual's basis for
constructing reality and interpreting life experiences
(McCombs & Whisler, 1997).
“A student-centered curriculum teaches each learner
to select and sequence his own activities and
materials (individualization), arranges for students
to center on and teach each other (interaction); and
interweaves all symbolized and symbolizing subjects so
that the student can effectively synthesize knowledge
structures in his own mind (integration)” ( Moffett
& Wagner, 1992, p. 24).
In-depth content knowledge
Eggen, P. D., &
Donald, P. (1996).
Strategies for teachers: Teaching content
and thinking skills.
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Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers
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construction of understanding and meaning
How, why, what, when, and where: Perspectives
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Issues in Education: Contributions from
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