According to specialists in the field of education, school and classroom
management aims at encouraging and establishing student self-control through a
process of promoting positive student achievement and behavior. Thus academic
achievement, teacher efficacy, and teacher and student behavior are directly
linked with the concept of school and classroom management.
Classroom management focuses on three major
management, conduct management, and covenant
management. Each of these concepts is defined and presented with
details in a list of observable elements in effective teaching practices.
Research shows that a high incidence of classroom
disciplinary problems has a significant impact on the effectiveness of
teaching and learning. In this respect, it has been found that teachers facing
such issues fail to plan and design appropriate instructional tasks. They also
tend to neglect variety in lesson plans and rarely prompt students to discuss
or evaluate the materials that they are learning. In addition, student
comprehension or seat work is not monitored on a regular basis.
In contrast, strong and consistent management and
organizational skills have been identified as leading to fewer classroom
In this light, content management "does not refer to
skills peculiar to teaching a particular subject but rather to those skills
that cut across subjects and activities" (Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p.
128). Doyle stressed that the core of instructional management is gaining and
maintaining student cooperation in learning activities (as cited in Froyen
& Iverson, 1999, p. 128).
Related to content management, Kounin (as cited in Froyen
& Iverson, 1999, p. 129) places a special emphasis on instructional
management skills, sequencing and integrating additional instructional
activities, and dealing with instruction-related discipline problems.
Conduct management is centered on one’s beliefs about
the nature of people. By integrating knowledge about human diversity (and
individuality, at the same time) into a particular instructional philosophy,
teachers could manage their classrooms in a better, more effective way.
Researchers have pointed out the importance of assisting
students in positive behaviors. In planning classroom management, teachers
should consider using an assertive communication style and behavior. In
addition, they should always know what they want their students to do and
involve them in the respective learning activities, under the general
conditions of clearly and explicitly stated schoolwide and classroom rules.
According to Iverson and Froyen (1999), conduct
management is essential to the creation of a foundation for "an orderly,
task-oriented approach to teaching and learning" (p. 217), thus leading
to granting students greater independence and autonomy through socialization.
An effective conduct management plan should also refer to
teacher control and administration of consequences. The following components
of such a plan are focused on in this summary: acknowledging responsible
behaviors, correcting irresponsible and inappropriate behavior, ignoring,
proximity control, gentle verbal reprimands, delaying, preferential seating,
time owed, time-out, notification of parents/guardians, written behavioral
contract, setting limits outside the classroom, and reinforcement systems. All
of these components are presented so they can be identified in examples of
best teaching practices.
Covenant management stresses the classroom group as a
social system. Teacher and student roles and expectations shape the classroom
into an environment conducive to learning. In other words, the culture of any
given school is unique to that school. However, it is directly influenced by
the culture of the larger community whose educational goals are to be met. A
strong connection between school and community must be constantly revised and
modified according to the requirements of societal dynamism. As schools become
very diverse, teachers and students should become aware of how to use
diversity to strengthen the school/classroom social group.
Quality schools are defined by teacher effectiveness and
student achievement under the auspices of building strong interpersonal
skills. In this light, teacher and student relationships are essential to
ensuring a positive school/classroom atmosphere.
Classroom management discipline problems can be dealt with either on an
individual basis (between teacher and student) or by group problem solving
(class meetings). As mutual trust builds up between teacher and students, the
latter are gradually released from teacher supervision by becoming
individually responsible. This is how both “educators and students become
co-participants in the teaching-learning process, striving to make the most of
themselves and their collective experience" (Froyen & Iverson, 1999,