R. (1993). Learning styles of the multiculturally diverse. Emergency
Librarian, 20(4), 24-32.
||Differences in learning style among students and
young adults of differing ethnic groups, between male and female students,
between high achievers and underachievers, and between gifted and
nongifted are discussed.
R., Beasley, M, & Buchanan, K. (1994). What do you believe about how
culturally diverse students learn? Emergency Librarian, 22 (1), 8-14.
|Presents a 21-itme questionnaire that teachers can use to discover their
personal beliefs and biases about how individuals in different cultural,
gender, racial, and religious groups learn best.
D. (1994). Culturally
specific learning styles: Some
suggestions for teachers (Report No. SPO352251). Louisville, KY: Paper
examining the importance of culturally –specific learning styles within
the context of the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 370 910)
|This paper examines the importance of culturally-specific learning
styles. Teachers need to
understand the cultural style of students; to use a proactive approach to
reach out to those students whose values and needs differ from the
mainstream; to exhort the message that “to be different means to be
distinct but not inferior; and to accommodate students with differing
needs and priorities by changing the system, but not forcing them to
G. (1988). Designing relevant curricula for diverse learners. Education
and Society, 20(4), 327-340.
||Demographic projections indicate that poor, urban,
and racial minority students will increasingly dominate public schools in
the next decade and well into the 21st century. This “new
majority” demands that schools seriously reassess and revise their
policies, programs, and procedures to respond more effectively to its
unique needs, to improve the quality of this student population’s school
experiences, and to enhance its academic achievement. After some
preliminary curriculum designs are created, the article lists specific
questions that can ensure that ethnic and cultural diversity permeates all
their component parts.
J. (1989). Building instructional strategies from student traits. NABE
Journal, 13(2), 145-160.
|The CCM model is presented. It focuses on the content, context, and mode
of an instructional strategy. Teachers move from observed student traits
to instructional strategies that are based on those traits.
V.V. (1990). Drawing on diversity: A handbook for and by Boston teachers
in multicultural, multiracial classrooms. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED 323 281)
|This handbook of culturally responsive ways to teach the basic, mandated
curriculum to students from diverse backgrounds was developed by a
multicultural group of teachers. The techniques draw on the students’
diverse backgrounds to increase student motivation and maximize teacher
D.A. (1999). Models of multiculturalism: enhancing immediacy and relevance
when teaching cultural diversity. Interdisciplinary-Humanities, 16(1,2),
||Considers today’s students the “postguilt generation.” Proposes
that teachers reconsider the way that students are exposed to issues of
race, gender, class, and sexuality, creating class activities that allow
students to experience the boundaries and definitions of identity.
Presents three models of classroom activities.
M. (2000). Programming for multicultural competencies. New Directions for
Student Services, (90),
||Reviews resources for and examples of effective diversity programming
and suggests multicultural competencies for program planners and their
students. Argues that practitioners must consider multicultural
competencies for themselves and their students as well as the issue of
M.F. (2000). Storytelling for young children in a multicultural world.
Early Childhood Education Journal, 28(2), 97-103.
|Advocates storytelling as a powerful resource to promote an
understanding of racial and ethnic diversity. Addresses issues of
selection criteria including elements of character development, prejudice
reduction, authority and authorship, and language. Includes an annotated
bibliography of stories for preschool and primary-age students and
reference sources for educators.
J.M., & Lacefield, W.E. (1982). Employability and multicultural
teacher preparation. Educational Research Quarterly, 7(1), 15-20.
|Employment success and job satisfaction were compared for beginning
teachers who had successfully completed multi-cultural course and field
experiences and for those who had traditional course and field
experiences. The findings favored the culturally prepared graduates who
had greater success in finding teaching jobs and obtaining their desired
A.J., & Young, D.B. (1993). Methods: Teaching and learning principles.
The Kamehameha Journal of Education, 4, 23-38.
|Describes features that make the Preservice Education for Teachers of
Minorities (PETOM) program unique among Hawaii’s teacher education
programs. Designed to prepare educators to teach children of culturally
diverse backgrounds, the PETOM program includes a committed staff,
modeling of effective teaching strategies (including collaboration), and
plenty of field experience.
D., & others. (1993). Multicultural messages: Nonverbal communication
in the classroom (Report No. SPO34795). St. Paul, MN: Study of Nonverbal
Communication in the Classroom. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED
|In a drive to facilitate inclusion in the classroom, one often
overlooked factor that affects the environment of all classrooms is
nonverbal interactions. This study was conducted to identify some specific
nonverbal messages that are often culturally bound; to help educators and
others involved in education understand nonverbal signals and avoid
inadvertently sending negative messages; and to validate the voice of
diverse populations in the classroom.
|An article, “Teaching with a Multicultural Perspective,” by Rey A.
Gomez. The article discusses
cultural stereotypes, myths, and promoting multicultural perspectives.
|A resource for educators concerned about creating equitable conditions
in which every child can succeed. These
equity materials can help teachers and administrators acknowledge
children’s diverse strengths, identify inequities, and improve the ways
they serve students with varied needs.
B. (1986). Cultural diversity and the school environment. Journal of
Humanistic Education and Development, 25(2), 80-87.
|Examines the manner in which environmental factors can be used to engage
the interest, focus the attention, stimulate the involvement, and make
learning easier for many urban school children.
|Five Ways to Analyze Classrooms for an Anti-Bias Approach
|Gillani, B.B. (2000). Culturally
responsive educational web sites. Educational Media International, 37(3),
||Discusses the shortcomings of multicultural education; presents
Vygotsky’s sociocognitive theory as a model for multicultural education
for the World Wide Web; and discusses the process of Web design as an
appropriate technological tool to apply Vygotsky’s theory to create
culturally responsive educational environments.
R.E. (2001). The use and role of multiethnic children’s literature in
family literacy programs: realities and possibilities. New Advocate,
|Reviews the recent professional literature on family literacy programs,
with a focus on the use and role of children’s literature, specifically
multiethnic texts, within those programs. Describes children’s
literature in family literacy and discusses the role of multiethnic
literature in family literature. Presents three examples of family
literacy programs for which the literature component has been more fully
|An article, “North Central Regional Educational Laboratory:
A Synthesis of Scholarship in Multicultural Education,” By Geneva
Gay. The article includes
topics such as: definitions of multicultural education, description of
social realities, discussion of teaching and learning, goals of
multicultural education, developing ethnic and cultural literature, school
reform, and key principles of multicultural education.
|This site offers links to multicultural education essays and articles.
|A large number of links and a wealth of information are on this site.
Links go to sites concerning multicultural education and teaching,
learning, equity, history, articles, and organizations.
National Association for Multicultural Education
The site contains current news on issues in multicultural education.